Background subtraction: statistical methods using multiple gaussians

Saturday, 17 August 2013 00:03 Stefano Tommesani
Print

Performance map

BenchmarkGaussianMixture

Gaussian Mixture Model of Stauffer and Grimson (1999) paper link

 

A common method for real-time segmentation of moving regions in image sequences involves “background subtraction,” or thresholding the error between an estimate of the image without moving objects and the current image. The numerous approaches to this problem differ in the type of background model used and the procedure used to update the model. This paper discusses modeling each pixel as a mixture of Gaussians and using an on-line approximation to update the model. The Gaussian distributions of the adaptive mixture model are then evaluated to determine which are most likelyto result from a background process. Each pixel is classified based on whether the Gaussian distribution which represents it most effectivelyis considered part of the background model. This results in a stable, real-time outdoor tracker which reliably deals with lighting changes, repetitive motions from clutter, and long-term scene changes. This system has been run almost continuously for 16 months, 24 hours a day, through rain and snow.

 

Gaussian Mixture Model of KadewTraKuPong and Bowden (2001)paper link

 

Real-time segmentation of moving regions in image sequences is a fundamental step in many vision systems including automated visual surveillance, human-machine interface, and very low-bandwidth telecommunications. A typical method is background subtraction. Many background models have been introduced to deal with different problems. One of the successful solutions to these problems is to use a multi-colour background model per pixel proposed by Grimson et al [1,2,3]. However, the method suffers from slow learning at the beginning, especially in busy environments. In addition, it can not distinguish between moving shadows and moving objects. This paper presents a method which improves this adaptive background mixture model. By reinvestigating the update equations, we utilise different equations at different phases. This allows our system learn faster and more accurately as well as adapt effectively to changing environments. A shadow detection scheme is also introduced in this paper. It is based on a computational colour space that makes use of our background model. A comparison has been made between the two algorithms. The results show the speed of learning and the accuracy of the model using our update algorithm over the Grimson et al’s tracker. When incorporate with the shadow detection, our method results in far better segmentation than that of Grimson et al.

 

Gaussian Mixture Model of Zivkovic (2004) paper link1 paper link2

 

We analyze the computer vision task of pixel-level background subtraction. We present recursive equations that are used to constantly update the parameters of a Gaussian mixture model and to simultaneously select the appropriate number of components for each pixel. We also present a simple non-parametric adaptive density estimation method. The two methods are compared with each other and with some previously proposed algorithms.

 

Gaussian Mixture Model of Zivkovic (2004) paper link1 paper link2

 

We analyze the computer vision task of pixel-level background subtraction. We present recursive equations that are used to constantly update the parameters of a Gaussian mixture model and to simultaneously select the appropriate number of components for each pixel. We also present a simple non-parametric adaptive density estimation method. The two methods are compared with each other and with some previously proposed algorithms.

 

Gaussian Mixture Model of Baf et al (2008) paper link

 

Mixture of Gaussians is a widely used approach for background modeling to detect moving objects from static cameras. Numerous improvements of the original method developed by Stauffer and Grimson [1] have been proposed over the recent years and the purpose of this paper is to provide a survey and an original classification of these improvements. We also discuss relevant issues to reduce the computation time. Firstly, the original MOG are reminded and discussed following the challenges met in video sequences. Then, we categorize the different improvements found in the literature. We have classified them in term of strategies used to improve the original MOG and we have discussed them in term of the critical situations they claim to handle. After analyzing the strategies and identifying their limitations, we conclude with several promising directions for future research


These algorithms are contained in the bgslibrary by Andrews Sobral, that includes over 30 background subtraction algorithms, a common C++ framework for comparing them, and an handy C++/MFC or Java app to see them running on video files or live feed from a webcam.

Return to the list of background subtraction algorithms

Last Updated on Monday, 23 September 2013 17:36